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A Study On Civil Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damages from Ships in China

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dc.contributor.advisor 정대 - HAO HUIJUAN - 2019-12-16T02:47:01Z - 2019-12-16T02:47:01Z - 2018 -
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dc.description.abstract 세계 산업은 에너지에 의존하여 성장과 발전을 하고 있으며, 에너지의 대부분은 석유를 근본으로 하고 있다. 따라서 석유등의 유류 해상운송은 해상오염의 위험을 항상 내포하고 있다. 세계경제의 중요한 한축을 담당하고 있는 중국 역시, 막대한 양의 에너지를 산업발전에 사용하고 있으며, 에너지 원으로서의 석유 확보를 위해 유류의 해상운송을 적극적으로 활용하고 있다. 이는 앞에서 언급한 바와 같이 중국도, 석유의 해상운송에 따른 해상 유류오염 사고의 위험에 잠재적으로 노출되어 있다고 할 것이다. 이러한 유류의 선박운송에 따른 해상오염사고에 대비하고자 세계는 국제기구를 통해 보상을 위해 꾸준히 노력하였고, 그 결과 “유류오염손해에 대한 민사책임에 관한 국제협약”이 성립되었고, “1971년 유류오염손해에 대한 국제보상기금의 설치에 관한 국제협약”에 의해 보완되었다. 또한 각 협약의 1992년 개정의정서가 채택되어 1998년 발효되었다. 그러나 해상물동량의 중가와 선박의 대형화로 대형 유류오염사고가 발생하자 피해자 보호를 위해 IOPC Fund를 설립하게 되었다. 그럼에도 불구하고, 중국은 해상유류오염에 대비한 실질적인 법률규정 및 보상체계에 대한 제도등이 미비할 뿐만 아니라, 이를 대비하기 위한 연구 또한 활발하게 이루어지고 있지 않다. 그 주된 이유는 중국정부가 국제협약에서 규정하고 있는 보상제도를 중국이 받아들이는 것을 주저하였기 때문이다. 이에 본 논문은 해상유류오염사고에 대비한 국제기구의 노력 및 그 합의 결과인 국제협약에 대하여 심도 깊게 살펴보고, 이를 중국법제도에 반영할 수 있는지를 사회 과학적 방법론으로 분석하고자 한다. 이를 위해 한국의 유류오염보상법 및 보상제도를 분석하고, 이를 바탕으로 중국도 1992년 기금 협약 가입의 필요성과 당위성을 검토하고자 한다. 또한 중국 현실에 맞는 유류 오염보상을 위한 방안을 제시할 예정이며, 이러한 연구는 중국 정부가 1992년 기금 협약의 수용을 검토할 때 유용한 자료로서 활용될 것으로 사료된다. |We live in an energy-dependent world where oil is the main source of energy. The oil carriage by sea goes indispensably and inseparably with the potential risk of oil spill incidents. China is potentially exposed to an increasing risk of ship oil pollution incidents as a result of rapid development of its marine petroleum industry and marine transportation. However, the complete framework of a compensation regime for ship oil pollution damage has not established until a number of laws and regulations are coming into effect. Furthermore in China, currently there is no any relevant research dedicated to this new regime of compensation for ship oil pollution damage. In addition, this research is motivated by China's reluctance to fully accept the well-established international compensation regime for ship oil pollution damage. Few attempts have been made to explain the different attitudes of countries toward the international compensation regime, or to analyze the rationality of China's incomplete acceptance of such international regime. This thesis as far as possibly contributes to the existed literature (solutions) on that aspect, it not only definitely reviews the legal framework of the compensation regime, but also obviously explains the various attitudes in terms of the international compensation regime for tanker oil pollution damage. In this respect, this research relevantly applies a social science methodology into legal research, to figure out and interpret the patterns of related countries with a high acceptance level of the international regime. In fact, the aim of this thesis is to completely explore the general model of accession to the 1992 Fund Convention and to fully explain further rationale behind this type. By analyzing the Korean type which is similar in China, the possible explanation of these types will help to analyze the rationality of China's accession to the 1992 Fund Convention. This probably will provide inspiration for policy makers when they consider their needs to accept the 1992 Fund Convention now. Based on the above analysis, on one side, we come to conclude three ways to polish the legal system of compensation for oil pollution in China; on the other side, we are likely to analyze the feasibility of these approaches. -
dc.description.tableofcontents List of Tables v List of Figures vi 국문초록 vii Abstract ix Abbreviations xi Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Research Background 1 1.2 Research Questions and Purposes 6 1.3 Research Methods 9 1.4 Thesis Structure 11 Chapter 2 Evolution of Legal Framework of the International Compensation Regime 13 2.1 Introduction 13 2.2 Basic Theory of Oil Pollution Damage Compensation 16 2.2.1 Introduction 16 2.2.2 Risk of Exposure to Tanker Oil Spills 20 2.2.3 Financial Burden 24 2.2.4 Level of Economic Development 27 2.2.5 Summary 30 2.3 The Jurisprudential Basis of Oil pollution Damage Compensation Fund System 32 2.3.1 Pigou's Economic Externality Theory 33 2.3.2 Aristotle’s Theory of Justice 35 2.3.3 Rawls's Justice Theory 38 2.3.4 Summary 41 2.4 1969/1992 CLC 41 2.4.1 The Subject of Liability 42 2.4.2 Scope of Compensation 42 2.4.3 Strict Liability of Ship Owner 45 2.4.4 Limitation of Liability 47 2.4.5 Compulsory Insurance and Direct Action 49 2.5 The 1992 Fund Convention 51 2.6 The 2003 Supplementary Fund Convention 55 2.7 The Bunkers Convention 57 2.8 Summary 58 Chapter 3 Compensation Status and Legal Problems under Chinese Laws 64 3.1 Compensation Status in China 64 3.1.1 Oil Spill from Ships in Chinese Sea Areas 64 3.1.2 Compensation Plight Status in China 69 3.2 Legal Problems under Chines Laws 71 3.2.1 Legislative Issues 71 3.2.2 The Subject of Liability 77 3.2.3 Scope of Compensation 81 3.2.4 Limitation Liability 91 3.2.5 Compulsory Liability Insurance System 95 3.2.6 Oil pollution Fund System 100 3.2.7 No Clear Application of Law 112 Chapter 4 Legal Regime of Compensation in Korea and its Enlightenment to China 117 4.1 Overview Laws and Regulations in Korea 117 4.2 Legal Regime of Compensation in Korea and its Enlightenment to China 120 4.2.1 The Subject of Liability 121 4.2.2 Scope of Compensation 129 4.2.3 Limitation of Liability 137 4.2.4 Compulsory Insurance and Direct Action 146 4.2.5 Fund system and Supplementary Fund Convention 153 4.2.6 The Limitation of Liability Procedure 157 4.3 Legal Problems of Compensation in Korea 161 4.3.1 Unreasonable Claims and Poor Evidence 161 4.3.2 The Ship owner of the Liability for damages 163 4.3.3 The Limits of Liability and Liability Restrictions Procedures 164 4.3.4 The FUND 165 4.4 Improvement of Compensation in Korea 166 4.4.1 Increase the Compensation Rate 166 4.4.2 Solve the Financial Problems 167 4.4.3 Reform of Procedural Order of Limitation of Liability 168 4.5 Explain the Korean Practice 168 4.5.1 Benefits and Current Protection Level 171 4.5.2 Risk of Exposure to Tanker Oil Spills 171 4.5.3 Level of Economic Development and Financial Burden 172 4.5.4 Inspiration to China 174 Chapter 5 Suggestions and Conclusions 179 5.1 Suggestions 179 5.1.1 Consider Acceding to the 1992 Fund 179 5.1.2 Establish a New Oil Pollution Compensation Law 184 5.1.3 Develop a Special Adjustment Law 186 5.2 Conclusions 193 5.3 Further Research 195 References 197 Acknowledgements 209 -
dc.language eng -
dc.publisher 한국해양대학교 대학원 -
dc.rights 한국해양대학교 논문은 저작권에 의해 보호받습니다. -
dc.title A Study On Civil Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damages from Ships in China -
dc.type Dissertation - 2018-02 -
dc.contributor.alternativeName 학회연 -
dc.contributor.department 대학원 해사법학과 -
dc.contributor.affiliation 한국해양대학교 대학원 해사법학과 - Doctor -
dc.subject.keyword 중국 선박 유류오염손해 민사책임 -
dc.title.translated 중국의 선박기인 유류오염손해에 대한 민사책임에 관한 연구 -
dc.contributor.specialty 해사법 - 000000001979▲200000000139▲200000006681▲ -
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