This study concerns the importance of internal marketing, employee’s attitude, and customer orientation through the change of port industry and the operational condition of domestic container terminals such as below.
First, the keen competition among each nations to be a hub port due to the reduction of shipper’s port of call, and the deepen competition among central ports due to increasing cargo in Asia area. Second, the reinforcement of customer service by means of strategic alliance due to the necessity of shippers intended to secure price competitiveness as well as service competitiveness. Third, the increase of ports managed by private enterprises to provide better and efficient services by adopting current management techniques. Finally, the increased necessity of marketing activities is to maintain continuous relationship with customers due to an inevitable competition among the ports.
In accordance with this, the structural relationship among variables, which are internal marketing, employee’s attitude and customer orientation in container terminals need to be acknowledged to secure competitive advantage and to maintain continuous transaction relationship with customer though the empirical research.
The previous researches on the internal marketing usually focused on the service industry which is depending on human resources. In this study, it has been developed that delicate measures to apply into the capital goods industry such as container terminals.
The purpose of this study is to firstly, that understand the current facilities and situation of container terminals in Busan port, and its changing environment of port industry. Secondly, provide basic information through the seeking whether the concept of internal marketing is able to apply into port industry. Thirdly, establish the theoretical system through the literature consideration on internal marketing, employee’s attitude and customer orientation in container terminals. Finally, draw useful suggestions for managing container terminals through the structural relationship among variables, which are internal marketing, employee’s attitude, and customer orientation in container terminals.
The data of this study focused on container terminals in Busan port which are handling 75.1% of whole cargo in Korea. The survey conducted from 9.27 to 10.15. The research problem was tested with data collected from 267 respondents. This study developed and empirically analyzed a model representing the relationship by using the multiple regression analysis.
The major findings of this study are, firstly, that the internal marketing is positively affecting the employee’s attitude. The employee’s authorization, the management support, and the internal communication of the internal marketing are positively affecting the employee’s job satisfaction. The management support and the employment stability are positively affecting the employee’s organization immersion.
Secondly, the internal marketing is positively affecting the customer orientation. The training, the employment stability, the internal communication, the employee’s attitude, and the employee’s job satisfaction are positively affecting the practical dimension, the cost dimension, the time dimension, the human dimension, and the technical dimension of the customer orientation.
Thirdly, the positive employee’s attitude is positively affecting the customer orientation. The employee’s attitude and the job satisfaction are positively affecting the technical dimension, the cost dimension, the time dimension, and the human dimension of the customer orientation.
Finally, the higher customer orientation is positively affecting the better port service. Therefore it is possibly predicted that the internal marketing and employee’s attitude are affecting the better port service and customer’s satisfaction.
In addition, further research into the different characteristics of the customers and container terminals needs to be undertaken, as it effects the customer's satisfaction with the internal marketing, the employee’s attitude, and the customer orientation.