A Study on the Effect of Ocean Education Policy Instruments on the Ocean Consciousness
Lee, Cho Hee
Department of International Commerce & Maritime Administration Graduate School of Korea Maritime University
According to the paradigm change from the age of Information Revolution based on knowledge, technology and information to that of Blue Revolution with ocean as key solution due to new waves in the 21st Century, it is necessary to seek ways to activate ocean education to promote ocean consciousness.
Accordingly, this study, in accordance with the current of the times, reviewed meaning and state of ocean consciousness, reviewed definitions and types of policy instrument of ocean education, figured out relations of effects of ocean policy instruments on level of ocean consciousness by analyzing it.
For ocean consciousness, it is defined as concern or knowledge for oceans and its related issues or attitude or standpoint of ocean. And for definition of ocean education policy, it means policy purpose of proper ocean education and its basic principle by authorities to be achieved.
Six factors affecting ocean consciousness are as follows: while natural condition and history are two fixed factors while recreation and leisure, job, education and public relations and culture are considered as changing factors because they could be changed by governmental or personal efforts
There are reasons for low ocean consciousness with the following 4 aspects: geographical aspect as a peninsular nation and educative aspect in regard of lack of systematic education system on ocean matters.
Through these theoretical studies, the positive research was performed. As the results of general attitude on effects of ocean attitude and policy instruments of ocean education, the most influential factor by respondents was matter of education and public relations. For responses about reasons for low ocean attitude in Korea showed lack of systematic education system. From these results, ocean education is inevitable for prompting ocean consciousness. And then the respondents chose development of contents and textbooks of ocean education as most best solution to foster ocean consciousness.
Policy instrument of ocean education can be categorized as follows: regulative(stick) policy instrument, economical and informative(carrot and sermons) instrument and organizational policy instrument. And then as the results of effect relations on ocean attitude by them, except for regulative one, the rest of policy instruments showed their statistically significant influences.
Based on the results, I made suggestions for developing ocean education policy instrument.
First of all, for systematic policy instruments, it is necessary to enact ocean Education Promotion Act and regulation offering foundation for ocean education center. And then, for economical policy instruments, it is needed to prepare qualification and support system for ocean education program, training of teachers who take charge of ocean education and to link them with informative policy instruments. Also, about informative policy instruments, it needs to develop textbooks for ocean education, to apply forms of online ocean education and experience education for youth. Finally, concerning organizational policy instruments, it is essential to build networks among ocean scientists and teachers, association to develop ocean education and further its international network
However, in fact, most of governments tend to apply various instruments not only one instrument in order to achieve it. And individual policy instrument may be combined into as a whole for applying it simultaneously or gradually. Besides, because one policy instrument may change gradually according to natures of policy-targeted groups and policy instrument itself, in order to make proper policy decisions, not one superior but multiple and diverse instruments should be applied with harmonizing them. external aspect like chancing concern to other fields policy and cultural aspect such as ocean prohibition policy and Confucianism