ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by aqueous preparation routes of a precipitation and a hydrothermal process. In the processes, the powders were formed by mixing aqueous solutions of Zn-nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO)·6HO) with NaOH aqueous solution under controlled reaction conditions such as Zn-precursor concentration, reaction pH and temperature. Single ZnO phase has been obtained under low Zn-precursor concentration, high reaction pH and high temperature. The synthesized particles exhibited flakes (plates), multipods or rods morphologies and the crystallite sizes and shapes would be efficiently controllable by changing the processing parameters. The hydrothermal method showed advantageous features over the precipitation process, allowing the precipitates of single ZnO phase with higher crystallinity at relatively low temperatures below 100℃ under a wider pH range for the Zn-precursor concentration of 0.1~1.0 M.
The nano-array of the vertically aligned rod-like particles grown on ZnO coated glass-substrates was obtained via hydrothermal process. ZnO thin film coatings were prepared on the glass substrates using a MOD dip-coating method with zinc chloride dihydrate as starting material and 2-ethylhexanol as solvent. ZnO nanorods were synthesized on the seeded substrates by hydrothermal method at 80°C using zinc-nitrate hexahydrate as a Zn source and sodium hydroxide as a mineralizer. Under the hydrothermal condition, the rod-like nanocrystals were easily attaching on the already ZnO seeded (coated) glass surface. It has been shown that the hydrothermal synthesis parameters are key factors in the nucleation and growth of ZnO crystallites. By controlling of hydrothermal parameters, the ZnO particulate morphology could be easily tailored. Rod-shaped ZnO arrays on the glass substrates consisted of elongated crystals having 6-fold symmetry were predominantly developed at high Zn-precursor concentration in the pH range 7~11.