- 중국 개혁개방이후 중소기업정책 연구
- LIN PEISHENG
- The Reform and Open Policy, Chinese Economy, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Support Policy for SMEs, Classification of Era
- Publication Year
- 한국해양대학교 대학원
- Since China's reform and opening up, the economy has flourished and attracted worldwide attention. China’s state-owned enterprises and large-scale enterprises have always been the backbone of China’s economy. With the economic development, Chinese Small and Medium-sized Enterprises(SMEs) also play an increasingly important role in the development of China’s economy. After many years of reform and opening up, China’s SMEs have grown from scratch, from small to large, from weak to strong, and have developed into the most economically vibrant group in China. However, due to the limitations of itself and constraint from the outside world, the development of this important group has been challenged.
Based on the fact that SMEs should be recognized as an important part of the Chinese economy, this paper focuses on reviewing and analyzing how Chinese government policy has been evolved to support SMEs for the stable development of the Chinese economy. It examines about 150 texts of government policies related with SMEs, which have been promulgated since 1978 and other scholars' existing research results, collecting a total of about 150 policy texts on Chinese SMEs. Based on the review of these literatures, it is found that the power change has so far had a considerably significant effect on SME policy of Chinese government. Chinese government’s SME policy has been gradually specified since the reform and opening up. The first stage was the period of Deng Xiaoping, the second stage was Jiang Zemin period, the third stage was Hu Jintao period, and the fourth stage was Xi Jinping period. This paper analyzed the main content of the government's SME policies at each stage and the impact of these policies on SMEs. Based on the above research results, it was found how Chinese government has recognized the significance of SMEs in the process of economic development and developed its support policy for SMEs to help them grow sustainably.
The main conclusions of this article are as follows:
Deng Xiaoping period was classified as the period from 1979 to 1991. During this period, China’s policy on SMEs went through two phases. The first stage was from 1978 to 1984. At this stage, China was at the initial stage of reform and opening up. The Chinese government did not pay attention to the development of SMEs in terms of policies. Chinese enterprises were divided according to the types of ownership. These different types of enterprises enjoyed the different treatment in terms of status and policies. As Chinese SMEs have just sprouted, they formed at the bottom of Chinese companies and had not enjoyed any preferential treatments from the government support policy. Instead, they were subject to policy discrimination and restrictions. The second stage was from 1984 to 1991. Starting from the Third Plenary Session of the Twelfth Central Committee, Chinese government began to divide the company according to the size and scale of the enterprise. The focus of the policy was on supporting the development of large state-owned enterprises and the SMEs were just permitted to run in the type of voluntary management.
Jiang Zemin period was classified as the period from 1992 to 2002. During this period, China's reform and opening up began to take a step and embarked on the fast track of economic development. Due to successful take-off of Chinese economy, Chinese SMEs had also made quantitative growth so rapidly within the framework of the overall national plan for reform and opening up. The Chinese government was also aware that SMEs had worked as dynamic engine of economic growth to play an important role in the Chinese economy and the government began to pay attention to the development strategies for SMEs in the policy, which contributed to increasing support for SMEs.
Hu Jintao period was classified as the period from 1992 to 2002. During this period, China had achieved a remarkable economic growth in a quantitative aspect but not in a qualitative aspect. This made China’s SMEs undergo a severe transformation after the financial crisis in 2008. China’s policy towards SMEs support had also focused on the policy tools based on finance and taxation. SMEs have received key support from Chinese government policies.
Xi Jinping period was classified as the period from 1992 to the present. During this period, Chinese economy has grown as the second largest economy in the world so that it may play a role as rule maker in the world economy. China’s policy support for SMEs has also been evolved in detail and in a sophisticated way. When it comes to support policy for SMEs in this period, macro-economic policy based on financial policy and fiscal policy has been combined with micro-economic policy based on separate and independent economic variables. So the policy has become more comprehensive and conducive to SMEs in multi-level.
Since 1978 the Reform and Open Policy, the change of policy for SMEs has depended on the power transfer and corresponded to evolution process of how the government recognized the importance of SMEs for sustainable economic growth. Such a recognition has encouraged it to establish the systematic and specific support policy for SMEs, responding to the changeable economic circumstances in the world economy.
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