항만시설사용료 감면제도가 울산항 활성화에 미치는 영향 분석(액체화물 중심으로)
- 항만시설사용료 감면제도가 울산항 활성화에 미치는 영향 분석(액체화물 중심으로)
- 항만, 울산항, 항만시설사용료, 활성화, 효과, 영향
- Issued Date
- 한국해양대학교 글로벌물류대학원
- Recently, as the competition between domestic and international ports has intensified due to the changes of environment in shipping and port, each ports have a port use fee reduction system in order to activate their port through attracting freight. On the other hand, the detailed analysis and impact of the port for the effects such as the increase of the ship and the volume of trade due to the continuous implementation of the port use fee reduction system are hardly examined. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the effectiveness of the port use fee reduction system by analyzing the contribution such as the influence of increase in the volume of freight according to the reduction for liquid cargo of Ulsan Port, which is the largest liquid logistics port among korean ports, and proposing institutional and operational improvement is the purpose of this study.
About KRW 7.3 billion yearly was deducted for the users of the ship and cargo fees during 2008 to 2017 in Ulsan port, and the amount of deduction increased by an annual average of 6%.
Also considering that the Ulsan port is currently promoting the Northeast Asia Oil Hub business, a case study for the port use fee and reduction system of Rotterdam Port, Houston Port, Singapore Port and Yeosu․Gwangyang Port, which is the domestic priority competition port, was conducted. As the result of this case study, the port use fee reduction system of the global oil hub competition port is operated in terms of political, managerial and strategic system. Therefore, the implication that Ulsan port need to improve their system securing the port competitiveness and to establish strategic policies with performance generating and the incentive scheme to strengthen continuously the port influence was drawn.
Then in the direct effect analysis according to port use fee reduction of Ulsan port, the reduction effect focusing on any changes of ship and cargo volume, reduction amount per ship or cargo volume and cargo amount per ship etc. were examined for liquid transshipment vessel of the breakwater wharf which exists only in the whole country, liquid transshipment cargoes and liquid cargo exports.
First of all, in terms of the reduction effect of liquid transshipment vessel using the breakwater wharf, from the opening in December 2009 until the year of 2017, a dockage reduction of 50% was applied, thus from 2010 to 2017, the average annual reduction amount per ship was KRW 1.2 million, which was increased by 11.6% per year. On the other hand, while the volume of liquid transshipment was only increased 0.5% in the same period, the average transshipment volume per ship was 3200 tons, which was increased by 11.5% annually and the average transshipment volume per hour was 107 tons, which was meant the annual average productivity increased by 5.4%.
Compared with other non-dockage reduction wharf, it has been shown that the average transshipment volume per ship was about 270 tons less. However, since 2015, the average of 3900 tons with 760 tons more has been processed, showing a positive signal from the implementation of the reduction.
In terms of the reduction effect of liquid transshipment cargoes, the full exemption amount of exported transshipment cargo increased by 2.7% per annum from 2008 to 2017, but export transshipment volume was increased only by 2.1% per annum.
On the other hand, when compared with the performance of import transshipment non-applying 100% reduction, annual import shipment volume was averaged 8.29 million barrels, which was about 2.9 million barrels more than export shipment volume and the import volume of transshipment per ship was 34,000 barrels per year, which was about 14,000 barrels more than that of exports, but the export transshipment was about 1.3%p higher in terms of annual average growth rate. This result can not be absolutely judged that there was no effect of the exemption of export transshipment, it is because of the structural characteristics in which the large ships are placed in the import transshipment and the factors excluded from the transshipment in case of transit through the land storage facility.
In addition, comparing the achievement of the reduction effect on the expected export volume of transshipment cargo by applying the basic unit of liquid transshipment cargo reduction effectiveness proposed by the Korea Maritime Institute in 2006, the positive effect was seen only in 2008, 2009 and 2011 to 2013. It could not be judged that the effect of the transshipment reduction system was sufficient.
Lastly, In terms of the reduction effect of liquid cargo exports, a certain rate of wharfage was reduced until 2010 in order to support the export industry competitiveness of the government and despite liquid export cargo reduction amount increased by 23.2%, export cargo volume growth was only 0.6% and the amount of reduction of wharfage per ship also increased by 22.3% over three years, but export volume per ship decreased by 0.2%. On the contrary the export cargo volume increased by 1.9% per annum from 2011 to 2017, when the reduction abolished was 1.3%p higher than the reduction period.
However, it could be interpreted that the possibility of liquid cargo incentive was relatively high because the comparison of export cargo volume inducing effect based on the reduction or the collected amount was 11.1% higher than the non-reduction period.
According to the above case study and the results of the analysis, first of all, there is a fundamental limitation of the reduction system to generate the port. In terms of operational aspects, the problem has arisen that the reduction system has been applied as a uniform and common content of the government rather than reflecting the characteristic of Ulsan Port, and the system operates without clearly showing the criteria and principles for the purpose of the reduction, the target, and the period, and there is no objective evaluation criteria that can be verified with low effectiveness from the reduction.
Therefore, it is considered necessary to introduce a reduction provision and a strategic approach to link liquid cargo increase in Ulsan port. As a method, in addition to the existing reduction provisions, I proposed a reduction for exported transshipment using land storage facilities, reduction by annual usage ratio, reductions in turnover contribution to increase the productivity of the wharf, and reduction according to frequency of port entry.
As a result, the port use fee reduction did not make a meaningful change in the volume of cargo traffic that represents the activation of ports. Therefore, to strengthen the implementation ability of specialization policies that are highly related to the activation of Ulsan Port, I have come to the conclusion that improvement and supplementation are necessary and presented a strategic improvement direction as following four points.
First, enforcement of the port use fee reduction system that can create the reduction effect for Ulsan port, especially liquid cargo traffic increase.
Second, introduction of effective incentives strategy which can attract liquid cargo to Ulsan port.
Third, clarification of purpose and application period of port use fee reduction system, verification and maintenance of reduction effect measurement.
Fourth, improvement of reduction system and introduction of strategic policy for Ulsan port activation and the details are presented in the conclusion section.
The limitation of this study is that a operational statistic was used to analyze the Ulsan port activation effect according to port use fee reduction system rather than methodological approach, so methodological detailed verification and analysis studies are necessary in the future, and the quantitative evaluation criteria should be supplemented to secure the continuing significance of port use fee reduction system.
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