In the current situation where the need for employment of foreign crews is increasing as the number of vessel fleets in possession continues to grow along with the decline of Korean crews in domestic shipping industry, this study was conducted in order to find solutions to the problems of the supply and demand and management that have been raised.
It has come up with the advantages of sustainable levels of employment of foreign crews in that it can not only has competitiveness for stable job creation and wages, but also respond positively to changes in an international shipping environment by following the trend of an increase in global exchanges.
In addition, for the efficient operation of foreign crews with those advantages, it has reviewed the fact that foreign crew-related laws, number of foreign crews employed, agreement on certification of a marine technician license for foreign crews, various administrative procedures related to employment and boarding of foreign crews, and an institution for the training of foreign crews are being supported in the country.
However, there are constant problems in the supply and demand and management of foreign crews on the spot despite the above-mentioned institutional support, so it intended to present more viable improvement measures by establishing the competency and satisfaction assessments of the foreign crews and problems and solutions in managing them from employers’ perspective.
A summary of the results of the empirical studies based on the need for research is as follows.
First, it has been recognized that the supply, training and maintenance of foreign crews are key factors for shipping companies and ship management companies.
Second, it has been determined that their assessment and satisfaction with those key human resources were quite high.
Third, the most of responding companies predicted an increase in demand for foreign crews under such circumstances, and they were expected to boost employment to join the trend.
Fourth, however, the responding companies agreed that they are actually having difficulty securing foreign crews , and the problem of qualitative supply in supply problems, that is, a lack of skilled foreign crews is a serious problem.
Fifth, the causes of the aforementioned problems in hiring foreign crews have been found to not diverse countries supplying them, inefficiently complicated foreigner employment-related administrative procedures, and inefficient impacts of other institutions. In addition, it has been found that there are difficulties in training foreign crews, and it is difficult to maintain employment of excellent foreign crews due to the lack of educational institutions specializing in their training and of training facilities for them.
Sixth, it has been suggested that it would be possible to meet the demand of the increasing number of foreign crews as well as to secure a stable employment of excellent foreign crews by expanding the number of foreign crews employed, increasing the number of positions in which foreign crews are allowed to board, determining the number of the foreign crews to be boarded regardless of the type of ships and the position of Korean crews, and implementing the change in the number of foreign crews assigned by ship classification in order to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties.
Seventh, it has been proven that shipping companies will be able to secure excellent foreign crews in a more effective way when they implement strategic measures like strengthening a systematic training system in certain countries that continue to provide outstanding crews, rather than unconditionally expanding the number of countries that supply crews and gradually diversifying the supply source to other countries.
Eighth, it has been finally suggested that there is a need to expand the professional educational institutions by establishing a joint training center operated by either company-specific educational institutions for foreign crews or country in order to continuously maintain the excellent foreign crews secured as above, and it is available to increase the satisfaction and immersion of the organization by meeting the social and economic needs of foreign crews through promotion to captain and chief engineer, an increase in wages and welfare, and the improvement of working conditions.
Finally, this study has significance in that it has found problems in the supply and demand and management of foreign crews and their future improvement plans convincingly on a more practical level, based on the necessity and management status of foreign crews’ employment, and it has believed that it will be necessary to expand the results of this study by collecting and reflecting institutional problems in the future and the overall opinions of labor groups that advocate foreign crews, government agencies, etc.