The year 2016 marks the start of the implementation of the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan”(十三五規劃) and a new phase of development which will see the formulation of a well-off society. It marks a profound change in China's overall development strategy which focuses on innovative, coordinated, green/eco-friendly, open and shared development. Green development, as one of the new philosophy, is a prerequisite for sustainable development. To achieve sustainable development as a guiding strategy for national or regional economic and social development, it is essential to adhere to the basic state policy of resource conservation as well as environmental protection. Since the entry of the new century, as China's rapid economic growth has deteriorated environment, environmental management plans has come to the fore as a new breakthrough. It has become a significant part of national macro strategies to raise the strategic position of environmental protection. As an important means of environmental management, environmental policy has become one of the core issues at all levels of decision-makings of the party and governments. To construct "a resource-saving and environmental-friendly” society, China's central and local governments have adopted a variety of environmental policy measures to strengthen environmental management.
Focusing on Qinghai(靑海) Three Rivers Source Region(三江源區) and Shandong Peninsula as the research objects, this thesis examines the currents status of environmental management and suggests prescriptions to address the problems related to environmental management of the regions. The Three Rivers Source Region of Qinghai province is the largest area of water supply and ecological conservation in China. Known as the “Chinese Water Tower”(中華水塔), it is not only the place where China's three major rivers(Changjiang River/Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River/Mekong River) originate, but also a significant ecological barrier and natural resource reserve of China. In recent years, owing to the global climate change and irrational use of resources, the Three Rivers Source Region has suffered from serious degradation of ecosystems as well as deterioration of ecological environments. To protect the "Chinese Water Tower” and reverse the trend of ecological environmental deterioration, the central and local governments and relevant departments have done lots of work in Qinghai Province. All the policies aim to protect "Three Rivers Source Region” and "Chinese Water Tower” in a way to ensure "A River of Water Flow to the East”(一江淸水向東流), to construct "Lucid Waters and Lush Mountains”(綠水靑山) of Qinghai, and to establish the concept of ecological conservation priority.
Shandong Province is a big marine city with a large sea area and a long coastline. With a continuous production expansion and population growth in coastal areas, the economy in Shandong Peninsula has been increased rapidly. However, due to the unreasonable aspect of the policy actions during the development process, more and more problems concerning the marine environment have emerged in this place, which severely restricts the Peninsula's economic and social sustainable development and destroys the coordinated relationship between human and nature. Improving the integrated management system of marine environment can not only promote the development of marine economy and marine ecological sustainability, but also safeguard the national marine rights and interests. Marine environment management should adhere to the theory of sustainable development, which is in accordance with the contemporary needs and while securing the well-being of future generations.
Under the guidance of the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan”, this thesis analyzes the present situation of the environmental management of Qinghai Three Rivers Source Region and Shandong Peninsula in terms of system and the human resources construction. Through analyses, this thesis found that the current environmental management systems of the local governments in the regions have the various problems including lags in relevant laws and regulations, conflicts among environmental laws and regulations, and deficiency in environmental management systems, etc. As countermeasures against these problems of environmental management, this thesis suggests the followings: modification of related laws and regulations, completing the cooperation mechanism of "Belt and Road”(一帶一路), application of the lessons drawn from foreign successful experience, and reinforcement of human resources management construction.