國際 로지스틱스 戰略에 있어서 컨테이너港灣의 競爭力에 關한 硏究: 東南亞 國家를 中心으로
- 國際 로지스틱스 戰略에 있어서 컨테이너港灣의 競爭力에 關한 硏究: 東南亞 國家를 中心으로
- Alternative Title
- A Study on Competitiveness of Container Ports in International Logistics Strategies : With the Focus on Southeast Asian Countries
- Publication Year
- 한국해양대학교 대학원
- The 20th century in international logistics was an era of multi-modal transport with the focus on maritime transport. The 21st century in international logistics can be said an era of 4PL(fourth party logistics) equipped with ITC(information technology and communications) as well as maritimeㆍair transport. Rapid development in shippingㆍport industries plays a leading role in the advancement of international logistics and foreign trade that greatly affect the relevant operation types. These circumstances have expedited changes in the new international maritime order as well as international logistics strategies in recent years.
Since most traffic volume in export and import depends on maritime transport in international logistics, shippingㆍport in the 21st century can also be significant factors to determine the state of logistics. Several trends have emerged: ship-building technology influences ship size and capacity, port facilities and wharves are being expanded, port management is more globalized, cargo handling equipment is increasingly effective, the WTO is more widely accepted and fast development of information technology is benefiting from further development. We are entering into an era of sky-high competition where maintaining competitive edge is key to survival.
As a result, every port in the world has been considering initiating new strategic plans in an effort to become one of the international hub bases. Many countries in Asia have already set up large scale investment plans, while leading world shipping lines. In this connection, they have approached the competition, capturing a lion's share of container throughput in Asia, which is rapidly increasing.
Thus, ports orienting to be a hub-port in the 21st century must specialize in both transport and information communications in which globalization has been taking place rapidly far and wide.
The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the competitiveness of ports in Southeast Asia, which play a leading role in basing the hub of international logistics strategies as a countermeasure in changes of international logistics environments. This region represents most severe competition among Mega hub ports in the world in terms of container cargo throughput at the onset of the 21st century.
The research method in this study accounted for overlapping between attributes, and introduced the HFP(Hierarchical Fuzzy Process) method that can perform mathematical operations. It was combined by a literary survey related to logistics, competition, shippingㆍport, and interviews by specialists in relevant fields. Research methodology was applied to develop a model. The HFP(Hierarchical Fuzzy Process) method is known as having great advantages over the higher frequency of adoption. It proved to be the most appropriate model in light of least cost, reduction of operation time in the research as well as the superiority of the resultant research accuracy and modeling.
The scope of this study was strictly confined to the ports of Southeast Asia, which have been enjoying the number one position in import and the number two position in export in the intra-Asia container volume. These ports cover the top 100 of 350 container ports that were presented in Containerization International Yearbook 2002 with reference to container throughput. The ports that qualify are Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Manila, Penang, Port Klang, Tanjung Priok, Tanjung Perak, and Singapore.
The results of this study show Singapore in the number one position, followed by Manila(2), Port Klang(3), Tanjung Priok(4), Tanjung Perak(5), Bangkok(6), Laem Chabang(7) and Penang(7).
Compared with major ports in Korea (after getting comparative ratings and applying the same data and same evaluation structure), the number one position goes to Singapore and then Busan(2) and Manila(2), followed by Port Klang(4), Tanjung Priok(5), Tanjung Perak(6), Bangkok(7), Inchon(8), Laem Chabang(9) and Penang(9).
In terms of the main contributions of this study, it is the first empirical study to apply the combined attributes of detailed and representative attributes into the advanced HFP model which was enhanced by the KJ method to evaluate the port competitiveness in the Southeast Asian region. Particularly, there has never been a single case even introducing a more practical and sophisticated idea as presented in this study. Some of the studies done earlier by other researchers used to show great interest in East Asia's major ports and analyze a certain port preference tendency. Up-to-now, none have comprehensively conducted researches with sophisticated port methodology that has discussed a variety of changes in port development and terminal transfers of major shipping lines. Moreover, through the comparative evaluation between major ports in Korea and those in Southeast Asia, the presentation of comparative competitiveness for Korean ports is a great achievement in this study.
In order to reinforce the results of this study, further research (including cost factors which could not be applied to modeling the subjective ports by lack of consistently quantified data in Southeast Asia) should be pursued. The evaluation structure could be subdivided with more extensive and precise criteria. In computing the value of Fuzzy evaluation by representative attributes, it is recommended that factoring work on qualitativeㆍquantitative attribution be carried out precisely. Further studies would be needed to reflect the respondents' accuracy of the questionnaires in modeling the evaluation of port competitiveness. These limitations should be overcome by future research that will enhance the competitiveness of individual enterpriseㆍindustry, authority, and consequently that of a nation.
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