The purpose of this study is to investigate the interrelationship among various subjects - the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Government-General, Japanese societies - shown within the process of Naval Port City Jinhae establishment run by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1910s, while laying stress on Jinhae School Union at the same time.
Studies on Jinhae are mainly about the Imperial Japanese Navy's Naval Port City Plan and its formation. Resulting in emphasizing the Imperial Japanese Navy’s active features thus relatively having Japanese society settled in Jinhae too passive or lost its further investigation.
This study tries to illustrate the social background of Jinhae in 1910s in various perspectives while giving attention to Jinhae School Union, which is deeply related to the Naval Port City Jinhae establishment process.
In early Naval Port City Plan period, Jinhae was divided into Naval Port Facility Area within the jurisdiction of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the city, forest lands, etc. outside the jurisdiction. Jinhae city was a planned town taken up 90% of its population by Japanese. Jinhae School Union was established in 1911 led by the Imperial Japanese Navy as a nongovernmental organization to provide Japanese immigrants with all-around education. However, it performed key roles in different fields like sanitation, civil engineering, etc. Jinhae School Union had taken a role as a main administrative body in Japanese society under the influence of the Imperial Japanese Navy until the local administrations were properly set after an installation of the Government-General. Therefore, close examinations on management and state of the Jinhae School Union at this period would help to grasp the facts of Jinhae Japanese society.
Based on these issues, this study explores the trend of Japanese society with Jinhae School Union from 1911 when Naval port was constructed in earnest to 1917 when Myeonjae (Japanese local governmental system) appeared.
Firstly, according to the results of investigation on the establishment of Jinhae School Union and city management appeared in Jinhae Naval Port City Plan of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy divided Naval Port Facility Area and urban districts, running direct and indirect management. The Imperial Japanese Navy conducted Land Rental Business - with first and second rents to private sectors, and third rents to Jinhae School Union, providing 240,000 pyeong of urban districts and 1,338,000 pyeong of forest areas. And so Jinhae School Union took charge of indirect management when there were no distinctive city administrations.
Secondly, Jinhae School Union was formed in support of the Imperial Japanese Navy to meet the demand of Japanese society which increased with the establishment of Naval Port City Jinhae. Jinhae where there was no settlement corporation unlike Busan, Masan, etc. took its role as an apparent administration of the Jinhae Japanese society by conducting preparation business required by the city in financial support of relinquished lands from the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Thirdly, the change of the Japanese Military Strategy after Russo-Japanese war relatively lowered the tactical value on Jinhae Bay. An installation of launching dept. - which was essential for long-term development of Jinhae - was consequently negated scaling down the development of Jinhae itself. The city development remained in a stalemate with a dramatic decrease in population since the investment around Naval Port City establishment was outflown from Jinhae with an alarm of a rear admiral Kamiizumi who led the Naval Port City Plan. Under these circumstances, Jinhae School Union took full activity - having talks with the Navy Headquarters and so on - representing Jinhae Japanese society.
Fourthly, in order to activate stagnant Jinhae, fleets must be in port beforehand substantially, accompanying the city sanitation. Like this, the power infrastructure of the Naval Port City Jinhae city development changed from Land Rental Business into port entry and sanitation. Since Jinhae School Union put forth its efforts on sanitation with the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Government-General, and Jinhae Japanese society's various organizations, and since the personnel organization including its director and sub-director duplicates with those of Jinhae Sanitation Union, it is clear that Jinhae School Union functioned as a subject of Jinhae Japanese society in 1910s.
As written above, that Jinhae School Union emerged as an administrative subject of Jinhae urban districts with the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Government-General and Japanese societies planning to manage city development from early 1910s when local districts were not properly set to 1917 when it carried out Myeonjae (Japanese local governmental system), and that Jinhae School Union took the city development centering around the sanitation based on cooperation among Jinhae School Union's own networks, the Imperial Japanese Navy, and the Government-General, are social characteristics of Naval Port City Jinhae in this period.