Recently, global production system through multinational management and localization strategies is bringing many changes to the international logistics system. Global logistics and distribution companies are building networks connecting ports for more convenient management and logistics activities for economy of scale and betterment of logistics services. In particular, multinational logistics companies view the world as a single market to build property networks at port hinterlands where it is easy to extend global management strategies and provide logistics services, while scattering procurement, production, and distribution structures to different regions for various logistics activities.
In case of Busan New Port Hinterland, however, the preexisting road is narrow and the completion of the new road from the west of New Port to Jinrye IC is being delayed. When the Hinterland is fully activated after 2015, the volume of traffic and logistics is expected to increase rapidly. As logistics companies in the Hinterland would need to pay a lot of logistics cost due to traffic congestion, the solution to this problem would be critical to the success of the logistics companies.
The shuttle that currently connects Busan New Port to the logistics companies in the Hinterland has the following companies: first, resources are consumed redundantly as each logistics company has independent transport vehicles. Second, the companies are not taking advantage of geographical merits of clustered complexes because different vehicles are used each time due to irregular schedules. Third, many one-way transports return empty to increase empty return rate. Fourth, immediate response to traffic congestions, accidents, or other unexpected situations on the road is impossible.
In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to establish a dynamic operating plan based on visibility and configure dynamic routing where real-time control is possible. Also, redundancy of consumption should be avoided and the transport system should take advantage of the geographical conditions of clustered hinterland. By sharing transport resources through logistics outsourcing, vehicles turning back to origin should be sent to nearby areas with demand to minimize empty return rate and reduce the number of vehicles operated.
In this respect, this study had the following purposes to realize these solutions: first, preceded studies were examined to analyze the operation of logistics companies in the Hinterland and the existing shipping management systems, and to configure a dynamic routing system. Also, a virtual logistics network with variability was established and processes were designed. Second, heuristic approach was made for operation scheduling and real-time operating rules to configure the best possible dynamic plan. Third, the reduction of consumption of resources with the shuttle and the efficiency were examined through a simulation of pooling and dual cycling applied to logistics outsourcing companies' shipping plans.
In result of simulating the existing transport system of logistics companies in the Hinterland, the optimal number of trailers for minimum wait time of incoming/ outgoing containers and maximum operation efficiency was 32. In this case, incoming containers' average wait time was 0.53 minute and outgoing containers' average wait time was 5.66 minutes. Loaded operation rate was 72.2%, empty operation rate was 22.9%, and parking rate was 4.8%.
When routing operation rules supporting pooling and dual cycling of transport vehicles were applied, trailer parking rate was the lowest at 2% when there were 16 trailers, and parking rate increased when the number of trailers was increased. Also, when the number of trailer was 15 or below, incoming containers' average wait time was 2.76 minutes and outgoing containers' average wait time was 7.66 minutes. Loaded operation rate was 87.4%, empty operation rate was 10.6%, and parking rate was 2.0%.
Therefore, when routing operation rules supporting pooling and dual cycling of transport vehicles were applied, the number of required trailers was halved from 32 to 16. Although the average wait time of containers slightly increased from 0.53 to 2.76 minutes for incoming and from 5.66 to 7.66 minutes for outgoing, trailers' loaded operation rate increased from 72.2% to 87.4%, empty operation rate decreased from 22.9% to 10.6%, and parking rate halved from 4.8% to 2.0%.
In sum, the operation method supporting pooling and dual cycling, in comparison to the existing method, reduced the number of trailers by 50% and improved the efficiency of operation by nearly 20% overall. Thus, sharing operation by outsourcing logistics companies with dynamic plans and routing rules would improve the efficiency of resources, such as vehicles and manpower, as well as the quality of service.