- 부산항의 환적화물 유치전략에 관한 연구
- Alternative Title
- A Study on Strategic Plan for Attracting Transshipment Cargo to Busan Port from Global Carriers' Perspective
- Publication Year
- Today, the shipping and port industries have been undergoing difficult situations due to an unprecedented global economic recession since late 2008 and it is, unfortunately, not easy to predict when the industry can get out of the situations. In the meantime, decreased trade volume have been forcing the shipping carriers and major ports to get into tougher competition for survival.
The Port of Busan adding 29 berths at the New Port on top of existing 16 berths at the North harbor seems to be getting in an awkward position due to decreasing trade volume and suffers more in the midst of fierce competition with neighboring ports in North China. Many preceding studies and researches have been made aiming to strengthen competitiveness of Busan Port so far but mostly focused on hardware aspects. Busan Port, therefore, needs to develop a new strategy from a different angle to become a preferred transshipment hub for sustainable growth.
As proved by many preceding studies, general competitiveness (hardware aspects) of Busan Port is somewhat similar to those ports in North China in terms of competitive factors except for import/export volume and transshipment cost, which means it can hardly differentiate itself from North China competitors in terms of terminal operational aspects.
This study would derive new competitive factors through the case study on a global carrier 'A' who shows constant growth in transshipment via Busan Port.
The following steps were taken for this study
Firstly, the analysis of transshipment trend for the past 10 years was conducted together with transshipment volume data analysis in order to analyze the reasons why transshipment via Busan Port is stagnant or declined.
Secondly, researches on the reports and studies were conducted for comparative analysis of the incentive system for domestic ports and competitors.
Thirdly, the case study on the carrier ‘A’ was conducted and the implications of their strategy is also analyzed.
Fourthly, preceding studies across the domestic and abroad regarding the strategy for transshipment hub and/or port competitiveness have been reviewed and thorough analysis was made to verify whether those strategies brought positive effects.
Fifthly, the factors for transshipment hub selection by global carriers were sorted out and the questionnaire survey was conducted.
Lastly, the following statistics analytical methods were used for analyzing the responses which were collected by questionnaire survey.
- Cronbach's alpha verification method and factor analysis were used to analyze the validity and internal reliability,
- Multiple Regression Analysis was used to identify the relationship of cause-and-effect among Independent Variables (factors for transshipment hub selection), Dependent Variables (effect of transshipment volume increase) and a Parameter (Mediation Variables),
- Kendall's ranking verification method was used to identify the ranking among factors.
This study is carried out to help lay the foundation for Busan Port to grow continuously as a hub port in the North East Asia by overcoming such undergoing difficulties. Most of preceding studies have simply focused on the port or terminals competitive factors from the port's perspective but this study tries to approach differently, such as "what the most important criteria for transshipment port selection are" and "how the mechanism for transshipment port selection is formed" from the global carriers' perspective, and also attempted to provide government, BPA and terminal operators with a new angle on "what needs the local branch offices or agents of global carriers have in mind".
The results of the study are summarized as below.
Firstly, as a result of reliability and validity analysis by using Cronhach alpha Verification method it appears that those 4 factors encompassing 14 variables are valid to be utilized as the criteria for transshipment hub selection.
Secondly, the results of those preceding studies indicates that the competitiveness of Busan Port shows no significant difference from that of North China in the overall factors in becoming a transshipment hub since Busan new port has begun its operation equipped with sophisticated facilities and equipments coupled with sufficient capacity. But Busan Port needs to strengthen its competitiveness against North China ports due to less local import/export cargo volume and less government support while North China ports continue to be developed with incremental direct calling and government's flexible cabotage rule.
Thirdly, it is highlighted that the role and function of the local branch offices or agents of global carriers for the handling of transshipment cargo draw our attention. Basically the selection of transshipment hub ports is made based on each carriers fleet operating strategy and cost management strategy, however, growth of transshipment volume can be greatly influenced by each carrier's branch office or agent in Korea as the volume would be a sort of indicator for the transshipment performance which depends on how the local branch office or agent treats the transshipment as a process owner, i.e. it may closely relate to their will to induce the transshipment cargo to Busan Port.
Fourthly, in the business world the profitability itself is one of the principal factors having a big influence on decision-making process, so it is recommended that government or port authority provide the branch offices or agents for the global carriers with a substantial benefits separated from the existing incentive which is being paid to the headquarters' accounts of the carriers who are not sharing the benefits with their agents in Korea. The existing incentive system does not work properly for local branch offices or agents who play an important role as much as their headquarters in terms of transshipment process. The new forms of benefits for local branch offices or agents can be assumed, for example, reduction of corporate tax or local tax etc.
Lastly, it is proved that the factor of the will for becoming the transshipment hub is affecting positively as a Mediation Variable in increasing the transshipment cargo.
However, there are some limitations that this study has borne:
This study is conducted based on both the case study on the carrier ‘A’ and the questionnaire survey from the local branch offices and agents of domestic and foreign global carriers. As the survey is conducted mainly across the front-line working level, this study has some limits in representing the true perception of local management level. And also the perception gap between manager level and front-line staff level can not be identified due to limited number of samples.
Therefore, in view of the importance of this area, it is necessary to conduct another study on the management level of the local branch offices / agents and headquarters of the carriers later on.
Also, further thorough study is needed as for the government supporting policy to provide a favor in a corporate tax or local tax to the local branch offices or agents since this study is not supposed to touch a local taxation system.
In addition, the methodology and extent of simplification of customs transshipment procedures and alleviation of penalty clause need further study as this area is out of scope of this study. Current existing complicated and regulation-oriented customs procedures surely need more positive and thoughtful consideration because it may jeopardize efficient transshipment process and undermine the concerted efforts to promote Busan Port as well.
In conclusion, new competitive factors need to be developed to come up with new strategies so that Busan Port can continue to grow as a transshipment hub and this study is hopefully to become the first step toward further researches to promote and strengthen the competitiveness of Busan Port.
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