- 북극해환경변화에 따른 한국의 해양안보정책연구
- Alternative Title
- A Study on the Maritime Security Policy of the Republic of Korea by Environment Change of the Arctic Sea
- Issued Date
- 한국해양대학교 대학원
- The Arctic marine environment is changing from moment to moment. The factors which affect the Arctic environment are changes in weather, oceanic conditions and the Arctic's own geographical features. Furthermore, widened human access to navigation within the Arctic Ocean has drastically increased the number of ships and aircraft in the area, and this is expected to lead to a new era of exploration
Japan Agency Marine-Earth Science and Technology to supervise and analyse the Arctic Ocean in real time. Korean research organizations should strengthen relationships with such Japanese scientific organizations in order not to be left behind.
Non-Arctic EU countries include the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, Netherlands, France, Poland, Italy, Belgium and others. Their common interest in these matters are concerned with the Arctic environment and energy preservation policies. Being a member country of 유엔해양법협약, they count themselves responsible for conformation to oceanic laws, international airspace and environmental changes.
Therefore, it is not too much to say that there is room for Korea and those countries to cooperate in a number of areas such as guarantee of the right to fish in international oceans, the conservation of biological resources, the safety of navigation in international shipping routes, and the legislation of international law for Arctic activities, and other matters arising from the new discoveries.
JANSROP-GIS are the most competitive ones compared to other countries' and the Ministries of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan established JAMSTEC
ANSROP-2 and geographical information system
10% of world coal reserves and a vast range of mineral and fishery resources from the Siberian Ocean take up to half of the total American fishery resources. Korea should refer to American's advanced knowledge of the Arctic and the reliability of their naval power, for example, in participation in the Arctic training program conducted from 2011 which would enhance the capability of the Korean Navy.
Norway, located adjacent to the Arctic, implemented the High North policy since 2006 and contributed to Arctic management to a large extent. Korea would benefit from consultation with the Norwegian Barents 202 Education Program, which comprises Arctic knowledge of vast scope. In addition to Norway, Greenland, due to its geographical nature, is believed to hold 48 billion barrels of petroleum and natural gas with a number of other natural resources.
Greenland is said to have competitive knowledge in digital mapping and geographic intelligence. Possible collaborative strategy between Korea and Greenland would establish an Arctic information intelligence centre, which would enhance Korea's understanding of Arctic and Greenland's business capability.
In contrast to the countries discussed so far, illustrated below are non-Arctic countries (in terms of geography). To begin with China, seems to have a similar position to that of Korea, but is ready for the upcoming new shipping routes and their results, such as resource exploitation. Both countries may work together regarding these opportunities, while they will also be in competition.
Japan, Korea's neighbouring country, is alleged to be the most prepared country for an imminent golden age of the Arctic. Their North Ocean program
crude oil, natural gas, mineral resources, fishery resources and so on, and they have also entered into a business in construction and management of new shipping routes. Probable areas where Russia and Korea can process a joint investment may include a newly-launched system of transporting crude oil from West Siberia using the ESPO oil pipeline, which a long-term project of cooperative resource exploitation in Eastern Siberia and the Far East. The same can apply to a port construction business, a mapping project for sea beds in the Barents Sea, Loften and Vesteralen areas, the establishment of Kirkenes airport and port, cooperation in research into an integrated surveillance system for Arctic navigation, expansion of infrastructure and conclusion of MOU with eminent universities.
Canada is known to be a country whose political interest in the Arctic is very high and is a place with rich mineral resources. They have recently started the Mackinzie Gas Project whose objective is to construct a 1,200km length natural gas pipeline. If successfully processed, 1.2 billion cubic feet of gas will be distributed through the pipeline and the official start of sales is expected to be in 2018 when every legal and financial problem has been solved. Cooperation between Korea and Canada is necessary for the following policies. Firstly, it is expected that Korea will be able to help Russia build VTS and communications management information systems in the Arctic, which are to be prepared for the new shipping routes. Additionally, the necessity for collaboration in port and resource development industries, development of high-tech vessels fit for polar expeditions, environmental protection and supporting indigenous people cannot be overlooked.
Alaska is renowned for rich resources buried in it
a quarter of the undiscovered petroleum and other natural resources such as nickel, copper, iron ore are to be found within the rock strata of the Arctic. Such potentials of the region will fulfil a role as a new growth engine for The Republic of Korea.
In addition to the bullet points above, this report will also investigate Korea's maritime security policy and strategies for the changes in the Arctic, and consider the resolution of these by diagnosing the situations of other coastal states. Other suggestions of this report regard diverse aspects of Arctic changes illustrated above, including effective ways of providing airspace management, ratification of new Arctic treaties, the operation of naval power of countries in the Arctic Council. These will be followed by the identification of the probable role of the Korean Navy in the Arctic and national policies dealing with Arctic issues. Having said this, solutions to the four main topics of this report are outlined by four different terms:
● International cooperation on Arctic management
● Governmental proposals of Arctic strategic development (in the case of The Republic of Korea)
● Identifying and promoting the role of an observer state in the Arctic Council
● Advance Arctic strategies in collaboration with other coastal states : the USA, Canada, Russia, etc.
To begin with the first term, there are a number of issues that need to be treated internationally. For example, territorial disputes including the continental shelf and the demarcation of territorial waters should be handled peacefully under terms of UNCLOS, which will deter any drastic action from countries involved in such disputes. Terminating conflicts between such countries is eventually aimed at enhancing maritime security in the Arctic. Other elements of oceanic security issues comprise ensuring the safety of navigation in the Arctic area and exploitation of mineral resources, which are the results derived from the new shipping routes. Concerning this discovery of new shipping lanes, it is strongly suggested that international military cooperative systems be launched with the support of the UN. In addition, free navigation has to be assured to every rightful country as it is strictly stated in the UNCLOS. Some countries, unsurprisingly, try to obtain exclusive possession of shipping routes and this cannot be overlooked. Every country related to the Arctic, regardless of distance, should legislate domestic laws on Arctic activities taking the peace of humanity into account. In addition, maritime observation systems capable of transmitting real-time maritime conditions, should be developed for those navigating in the region.
The government of Republic of Korea recommended to take the following action regarding Arctic issues. Firstly, government-led Scientific research and international cooperation activities should be enhanced. The government has recently re-established the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries and shown their intention to focus on the Arctic. The hot potato, however, is that their current level of scientific research and frequency of participation in international Arctic activities still remains low. There exist countless threats throughout the Arctic region and it is imperative that Korean naval power be strengthened in case of salvage and other rescue operations. Methods may include building icebreakers and the foundation of a military base in the Arctic. Establishing a consultative body for maritime policies would also help Korea play a role as an observer. Apart from the governmental dimension, supporting nongovernmental organisations should also be considered as this would assist in constructing a national information exchange infrastructure. Furthermore, Korean officials promulgated a plan for processing integrated Arctic policies in 2013. For example, Korea is ambitious for transforming Busan into a 'hub' for shipping in North-east Asia. Details of this project include collaborating with Russia. In terms of the Arctic Council, coastal states expect observer states to participate positively in their activities with financial resources and the sharing of scientific knowledge. The Republic of Korea should set a business model for the Arctic so as to precede competing countries. The Korean peninsula is directly affected by the Siberian air mass and, therefore, the precise prediction of climate changes in the Arctic is necessary. Lastly, the development of human resources is one of the most urgent tasks as Korea's contribution to Arctic activities will mainly relate to exporting its competitive manpower resources.
As discussed above, The Republic of Korea managed to obtain observer status in the Arctic Council in 2013 and experts argue that succeeding in the following policies would help Korea make its position secure. In the first place, observer countries including Korea should scrutinize progress when working groups of the Arctic Council aim to achieve common interests of humanity. If so, observer countries should actively participate in the activities of the groups so that Arctic can be protected both environmentally and economically. To give an example of such activities, observer countries can become involved when members of the Arctic Council make deliberations on new treaties or agreements affecting the Arctic. Secondly, Korea should seek SLOC security as well as raise the quality of the Korean Navy's sea rescue capability, which may be achieved if there is collaboration with other states. The next policy is the improvement of governance between states and understanding of the characteristics of the Arctic region. As the Ocean does not belong specifically to certain people or organizations, thus, it is necessary for us all to work together to protect it. Denuclearization in the area could be the first thing to process. The last policy is to make the full use of the extension of mutual exchange between EU countries and North Asian countries. Although North Korea's policy of seclusion prevents Northern Asia from achieving faster growth, this connection between two different continents is expected to raise Korea's economic potential.
Discussed from this point onward is the last topic: collaboration with other countries related to the Arctic either directly or indirectly. To start with countries whose concern towards the Arctic is more intense than other countries, due to their geographical attributes, Russia is regarded to be the top-rated country for investment from the position of Korea since the two countries are adjacent to each other, and President Putin of Russia is now pushing forward a business in energy development throughout Eastern Siberia and the Far East.
For instance, Russia currently concentrates on development of oceanic resources
it is said that the discovery of new shipping routes in the Arctic is of the same worth as the discoveries of Columbus. On the other hand, some say that the changes caused by human activities will not only provide benefits, but also the possibility of unexpected disasters and calamities.
There is no doubt that international cooperation is integral to the performance of policies relating to the Arctic area, which have been successfully developed for the last 10 years. Therefore, this study will look into the following factors:
● Pending issues for drastic changes in the Arctic and solutions to these
● Settlement of territorial disputes between Arctic coastal states
● Advantages and disadvantages of the discovery of new maritime routes
● Role of the Arctic Council and its future tasks
The Republic of Korea acquired a formal position as an observer at the 8th ministerial meeting of the Arctic Council held in Kiruna, Sweden in 2013. The Republic of Korea is considered to be poor in resources but it is, however, one of the most favoured nations in "trade". The potential of the Arctic, which may be examined following the discovery of new shipping routes has intrigued The Republic of Korea to turn its gaze on the trade situation within the Arctic area. Accordingly, the government of Republic of Korea has attracted cooperation within its own ministries in order to push forward its Arctic policies and to incarnate challenging issues while doing so.
Spelled out in the following paragraphs are the details of Arctic potential due to the discovery of the new maritime routes. Firstly, costs for international shipping are expected to downtrend sharply as the new shipping routes decrease shipping distances covered e.g. freight charge for international shipping are expected to be decreased by 25 per cent.
Furthermore, the Arctic, owing to its inclement weather and environmental conditions, has until now never been an easy place to explore. The situation is different at the present time, allowing the tremendous supply of natural resources which rests under the ice of the Arctic to become more accessible
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