- 선박의 승무기준에 관한 연구
- Alternative Title
- A Study on the Ships' Manning Levels
- Publication Year
- seafarers' fatigue caused by inferior working circumstances makes watchkeeping in negligence and dozing sailing, that becomes direct and indirect cause of various marine accidents.
Moreover, 82.2% of total marine accidents in Korea are occurred by the vessel less than 500 gross tons and 69.7% within Korean domestic coastal areas. As the international regulations for ships' manning levels are applied only to the vessel of 500 gross tons or more, the vessels which accounts for most part of Korean maritime accidents put into legal blind sector still being excluded from applying subject of ships' manning levels, even though ships' manning levels are strengthened by adopting international regulation into national law.
Therefore, in order to prevent marine accidents induced by the operational error accounting for 80.7% of Korean domestic marine accidents and the accidents induced by watchkeeper's fatigue on the ship where master performs the navigational watch alone or the ship navigates without officer, this study is to suggest the improvement measures in ships' manning levels as follows
63.3% of Korean registered merchant vessels and 99.3% of fishing vessels, and 20.9% of merchant vessels and 87.1% of fishing vessels are being operated without deck officers on board. Particularly, the seafarers on small vessels(vessel of 5 gross tons or more and of less than 25 gross tons), towing ships and fishing vessels are under difficult environmental circumstances not to have sound sleep on the ship caused by noise, engine vibration together with ship's continuous labouring at sea
indicating that relative importance of human error in marine accidents is still high. Especially, remarkable matter is that operational error of deck officers indicates 94.1% of the accidents of collision, allision and grounding. Ships' manning levels are decided in consideration of various ship's factors but the reason of high incidence of operational error has some relations with the fact that master performs navigational watch alone
A Study on the Ships' Manning Levels
By Chong, Dae-Yul
Department of Maritime Law
Graduate School of Korea Maritime University
Ships are the means of shipping industry, by which human lives or goods are conveyed so as to achieve the goal of shipping industry through safe navigation. The reason why the ships have to accomplish their safe navigation is connected directly to the profit of shipping industry and to the protection of human lives and goods. For ship's maritime safety and marine environmental protection, IMO has reinforced several standards and procedures on physical elements such as ship's structures and facilities and so on. Despite of it, major marine accidents were occurred continuously and the number of the accidents reported in 1960~1980's shows that 70~80% of those marine accidents were caused by human elements. Hereupon, IMO adopted and enforced the ISM Code. MSC and MEPC of the IMO have concerned with the human elements of marine accidents, and discussed profoundly about the role of human elements. Moreover, IMO has been interested in the fact that recent seafarers' fatigue matter becomes the main cause of marine accidents, and tried to solve seafarers' fatigue matters by enforcing ships' manning levels in accordance with relevant international conventions. As a result of it, resolution A.1047(27) "Principles of minimum safe manning" was adopted in 27th IMO Assembly which held on Nov. 2011 and 「SOLAS convention」 Chapter 5, regulation 14 was amended accordingly. Moreover, reviewing comprehensively「2010 STCW convention」, the standard of watchkeeping was reinforced.
In 2006 the International Labour Organization(ILO) consolidated existing seafarers' relevant Convention and Recommendation, and then adopted「2006 Maritime Labour Convention」, which is expected to become effective in 2013. This Convention ordains no favourable treatment clauses, therefore in case of its becoming in force, seafarers' work and living condition will be broadly reinforced. In the analysis of recent 10 years (2002~2011) Korean domestic marine accidents, errors in ship operation account for 80.7% of total marine accidents
First, application range of ships' manning levels should be extended. Definition of sea-going ship is amended as "the ship except those sail in shelter area in terms of 「Ship Safety Act」", so that the standards of ships' manning levels are to be applied to the ship which sails near-coastal area or more and officer should be boarded on the ship of 2 gross tonnage or more.
Second, the regulations for ships' manning levels of the ship under sea trial and not delivered to shipowner after new building and the SBM(Single Buoy Mooring) should be newly established. These ship and offshore facility are put in highly frequent danger of marine accidents but are not applied to national law. Accordingly, legal basis should be arranged for these vessels and offshore facility and be controlled under the relevant regulations.
Third, navigational watch should be fundamentally performed by three shift system, in which officer and rating become a pair of one shift unit. And it could be mitigated to two shift system within the extent satisfying seafarers' work and rest hour requirements.
Fourth, navigational watch of towing ship should be reinforced. 99.3% of total towing ships are less than 200 gross tonnage and 74.7% of towing ships less than 200 gross tonnage is under 750kw main engine power
master alone performs navigational watch through the voyage on these towing ships. And when towing ship is engaged in towing barges, manoeuverability is restricted partially and sailing time become longer due to lower speed under average 5 knots so that danger of master's fatigue-induced marine accident would be increased. Therefore, towing ships which sail near-coastal area or more should additionally place one deck officer on board. And one deck rating for navigational watch should be placed to carry out assisting berthing and unberthing work and tow line handling.
Fifth, navigational watch of small vessels(vessel of 5 gross tons or more and of less than 25 gross tons) should be reinforced. Skipper alone boards on small vessel. According to it, skipper may neglect to keep watching in case of engaging other work than navigation for necessity or of being fatigued due to over 8 hour continuous sailing. Therefore, one deck rating for assisting navigational watch of the skipper should be placed.
Sixth, the requirements for navigational watch on fishing vessels should be reinforced. 99.9% of all fishing vessels except ocean-going is sized as less than 200 gross tonnage, and skipper alone carries out navigational watch at sea. Skipper hardly can take a rest after departure until arrival at port due to commanding and supervising on crews during fishing operation as well as navigational watch. So, the skipper is compelled to doze during navigation caused by fatigue. Therefore, one deck rating for navigational watch should be placed for assisting skipper's navigational watch.
Seventh, computation and renewal procedures for ships' manning levels should be improved. The government, through the port state control, periodical monitoring and supervision on the ship, should make shipowner comply with ships' manning levels and seafarers' work and rest hour requirements. And also adequate number of seafarers should be manned on board.
Finally, the government needs to arrange mid and long term marine accident prevention plan by reflecting problems that deduced from statistics analysis of marine accidents into national maritime safety master plan. Especially, in case of being judged that causes of marine accidents are related to human error, the government should positively consider to examine the suitability for ships' manning levels including seafarers' training and qualification systems, so as to arrange appropriate measures.
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