철강산업은 자동차, 조선, 기계, 건설, 방위산업을 비롯한 전 산업의 기초소재를 제공하는 산업으로 매우 중요한 산업이다. 우리나라는 주요 철강생산 강국으로 세계 조강 생산 중 국내에서 생산되는 조강생산 비중은 1970년 0.1%에서 1995년도 4.9%로 급격히 증가, 2000년도에서 2007년도 사이에는 대략 4~5%를 점유하고 있으며, 철강재의 지속적인 수출은 무역수지 개선에 크게 기여하고 있다.
그러나 우리나라의 경우 철강산업 원자재의 대부분을 수입에 의존하고 있는 실정이며, 이때 원료의 중량이 무겁기 때문에 수송비 부담이 매우 크다. 따라서 철강산업은 원자재의 안정적인 공급과 원자재의 운송 시 발생하는 물류비용의 효율적인 관리가 매우 중요하다 할 수 있다.
따라서 본 연구에서는 철스크랩 화물의 수송합리화를 위한 운송경로별 경제성을 컨테이너선 운송과 벌크선 운송의 운송비 및 물류비의 비교·분석을 통하여 고찰해 보고자한다. The steel industry, as the national representative strategic industry of our country, has played the motive power for the economic growth of Korea in 1970s as the positive support of the government and the management endeavor of the private were harmonized.
However, in case of our country, we have mostly relied on import of the raw materials for the steel industry, and as the weight of the imported raw materials is heavy, the steel industry is the industry whose transport burden is big as it is called ‘transport industry’. So, the transport rationalization will be the important task of the steel industry.
So, this study has analyzed the economic efficiency per the transport route (container ship vs bulk ship) of the sea transport related to import/export of the steel scrap on the level acquiring the stable supply of the steel scrap. For this, this study firstly researched the status of domestic/foreign steel industry and analyzed the world crude steel production volume, steel scrap consumption volume and world steel scrap trading structure. Also, in order to compare the transport logistics expenses between two transport devices, namely, container ship and bulk ship, related to import/export of annual world crude steel scrap, this study calculated the logistics expenses per ton by using the traffic hours and traffic expenses items as the imported/exported steel scrap freights between Korea and USA, and between Korea and China of ‘D’ company, which is the import/export company of steel scrap, become the objectives.
As per the analysis results of the transport logistics expenses through the routes of the container ship and bulk ship, as for the steel scrap transport line between Korea and USA, firstly, the logistics expenses through the bulk ship from 2002 to 2006 is shown economical, and as for the period from 2007 to 2008, the time when the irregularity market status reached the maximum, the logistics expenses through the container line is shown economical.
And it was expected that as for the transport logistics expenses per each container of the container liner between Korea and USA, 40ft dry container was more economical than that of 20ft, but it has been appeared that 20ft is more economical than 40ft in the logistics expenses per ton.
So, it has been decided that as for the export/import transport route of the steel scrap between Korea and USA, it is more proper to be transported through the transport device of the bulk ship rather than the container ship, but that in case the transport logistics expenses of the bulk ship is higher than that of the container ship as per the tramper market status, it is more proper to transported through the container ship. And, in case the steel scrap freight is transported through the container ship, it was efficient decision-making to use 20ft dry container than 40ft dry container.