A STUDY ON THE RISK MANAGEMENT OF OIL TANKER OPERATION
- FOCUSING ON INSURANCE COVER -
Recently, the marine transport of crude by oil tanker has largely increased due to great demands for petroleum in industrialized fields, causing risks of marine pollution that threaten human beings' lives and environments and bring about a lot of serious problem. Further more, these kinds of marine accidents, if any, incur a huge amount of money to recover environmental and natural damage. To prevent these losses and accidents, an in-depth study has been executed by many specialists, owners of cargo and ship and countries. Tankers have somewhat different shapes in construction and working condition compared to normal merchant ship. If an accident occurs, normal merchant ship's damages will be confined to ship and cargo, but those of tankers will result in oil spills and catastrophe loss beyond our imagination.
So, first we must understand risk factors, pre-loss control and post-loss control, legal regulations about its indemnification and marine insurance for oil tanker operation. When unexpected accidents happen, it is possible for underwriter to cover those kinds of losses by insurance. To control these losses, however, it is important to establish compensation for oil pollution and arrange for oil pollution preventing system. In spite of oil pollution preventing system, we have rarely seen that pollution from oil tankers could be solved easily. Therefore, we need to consider more fundamental and systematic control measures for the risks of pollution from oil tankers. Further more, we have to prevent oil pollution fundamentally before considering indemnification of losses by insurance within limited range. Thus, various preventing systems for oil pollution, such as prompt remedy of spilled oil and damaged ship, quick and sufficient indemnification of sufferers from oil pollution, reasonable and safe management of oil company, are strongly required.
This study has examined various risk factors followed by the operation of oil tankers, implemented the pre-loss and post-loss control for risk factors, and treated measures indemnity for sufferers.
Futhermore efficient recovery of damaged tankers was discussed, and efficient risk management system for tanker operation carefully examined mainly on insurance cover.