인간공학적 요소를 고려한 연안 선박의 선교 설계 및 배치에 관한 연구
- 인간공학적 요소를 고려한 연안 선박의 선교 설계 및 배치에 관한 연구
- Alternative Title
- A Study on the Design and Arrangement of Coastal Ship's Bridge on the Basis of Ergonomics Concept
- Publication Year
- 한국해양대학교 대학원
- With the advancement of technology, the reliability and efficiency of marine instruments have been greatly improved over the years. However, the advancements in technology have yet to have much of an impact on reducing human errors which is the biggest contributing factor in the marine accidents. The ship safety is by no means an exception in this regard as the recent studies have found that the cause behind approximately 80% of all marine casualties can be directly or indirectly traced to human errors.
In order to devise feasible methods to prevent marine casualties caused by the human errors, this study will focus on the seldom-studied area among the human element - the ergonomic bridge design and arrangement of equipment on the bridge. The study will especially focus on the bridge design and the arrangement of equipment on the bridge of Korean coastal ships which constitute more than 90% of all marine casualties in Korea.
The International Maritime Organization(IMO), in the 2000 amendments to 1974 SOLAS, introduced Principles relating to bridge design, and arrangements of navigational systems and equipment and bridge procedures as Regulation 15, Chapter V. To support provision of the revised regulation V/15 of the SOLAS Convention, the Maritime Safety Committee(MSC), at its seventy-third session, adopted the MSC/Circ.982 'Guidelines on Ergonomic Criteria for Bridge Equipment and Layout'. However, as parts of MSC/Circ.982 are ambiguous or incomplete, member Governments are currently faced with the difficulties of adopting it into their national legislation.
Although it is well known that human element is behind approximately 80% of all marine casualties, it is difficult to find any conclusive statistics indicating the exact ratio of accidents caused by the faulty bridge design and arrangement of equipment on the bridge. Additionally, even in the marine casualty investigations, the focus is often on the officers' navigational errors rather than on the faulty bridge design and arrangement of equipment on the bridge.
Despite the fact that no conclusive statistics are readily available, it can be assumed that many accidents are direct or indirect result of not considering the ergonomics element in the bridge design and arrangement of equipment on the bridge. Although it is very difficult to prove such assumption in a quantitative manner, there is no doubt that the ergonomic bridge design and arrangement of equipment on the bridge play important role in preventing marine casualties.
In this study, the definition of bridge and its progression of change over time, the role and function of bridge, the definition of ergonomics and the grafting of ergonomics and bridge design were reviewed. Additionally, the studies and reviews undertaken by IMO on human element, and the ergonomic approach methodology and rules for bridge design developed by International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) were confirmed. Furthermore, the result of studies undertaken by IMO, IACS, ISO and ATOMOS project were compiled to propose fundamental principles related to the bridge configuration and arrangement, workstation, location of console and man/machine interface, etc.
As a final step, the drawing review, questionnaire survey and field study on the bridge size and equipment, the arrangement of equipment and the bridge environment, etc. of Korean coastal ships - which constitute a large percentage of marine casualties - were carried out to examine and analyze problematic areas. Using such data as a basis, the type of equipment required on board and the number of consoles required to house such equipment were determined. Next, the determined equipment and consoles were compared with the total area of bridge to propose the totally enclosed bridge which encloses the bridge wing. With respect to the arrangement of consoles, three standard models of integrated console were chosen. The three consoles were then subjected to the expert opinion survey and questionnaire survey of expert panel to figure out advantages and disadvantages associated with each model. Upon completion of the survey, most appropriate configuration of bridge and arrangement of console were proposed.
On the basis of opinions given by the panel of expert, the protruding front configuration of standard bridge were not considered for this study because it would hinder on deck cargo operations on small-sized ships like coastal ships presently operating in Korea.
For the installation of integrated console, taking the width of bridge and the length of console into consideration, this study found that ships between 500 to 3,000 gross tons should enclose bridge wing to secure necessary area. As for the ships of 3,000 gross tons and over, the study found that it is not necessary to enclose bridge wing since the width of bridge is usually large enough to accommodate the integrated console. Concerning the arrangement of console, the study has found that it is better to install the console one meter from the front window of bridge rather than installing it right against the front window, as this arrangement would allow for superior lookout, monitoring of activities on deck directly below and field of vision of 360˚. The study also found that in order to eliminate the inconvenience of going around the console to check the navigational information during the lookout activity at the front window of bridge, the 1/3 of integrated console should be separated to create an opening passage of 800mm in width which would reduce the moving distance.
Finally the author wishes this study would help to enhance the safety of Korean coastal ships.
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