The Port States Control(PSC) for ships engaged in international voyages have been on increasing trend worldwide and the deficiencies raised by the PSC, if occur frequently or of serious nature, can cause serious damages to the flag States, classification societies, shipping companies and seafarers concerned. In addition, the results of PSC interventions by various port States and PSC MOUs are statistically reviewed according to the ships, shipping companies and flag States. Once the statistics of PSC MOUs or port States on the certain ships, shipowners, class societies, flag States show unfavorable results(black list), these ships are to receive unfavorable treatments upon calling relevant ports and need to show good records for many consecutive years(normally more than 3 years) to return to white list thereby receiving the normal treatments. Therefore, all these relevant parties should make every endeavor to prepare for the PSC systematically and continuously.
The purpose of this study is to suggest short and long term measures and directions for the practical reference of concerned parties such as flag States, shipowners, classification societies, maritime training institutes, seafarers, etc. by examining current environments in general on the Korean fleets in relation to PSC and identifying the areas of improvement and effective and continuous measures for the PSC.
This study is unique in that the final conclusion has been derived based on the analysis of the questionnaires gathered from the various working level personnels relevant to the PSC together with the author's own judgements as the experienced field surveyor of classification society.
In this study, investigations were firstly carried out in the areas of the PSC outline, relevant International Conventions upon which the PSC is based, regional PSC MOUs, the United States Coast Guard(USCG), the PSC deficiency reports and procedures for the detention of a ship following the deficiencies found during the PSC, etc to understand the PSC in general and analysis of the current PSC trends. In the investigations, the related Conventions, resolutions and the internet home pages of each MOU and USCG were referred.
Secondly, various types of categories and causes of main deficiency areas were derived based on the analysis of PSC results of two major MOUs, i.e. Tokyo and Paris MOUs, and USCG, ships registered in Korean Register(KR) and of Korean flag ships.
Thirdly, questionnaires covering major nine(9) areas were prepared and answers to these were gathered from PSC related working level personnels such as in shipping companies, ship operators, ship, Korean Register, maritime training institutes. Based on this research, the priorities and degree of need of improvements were drawn for each area.
Fourthly and finally, based on the author's experiences of 15 years in the PSC related ship survey works and obtained through the preparation of "Practical instructions for PSC", etc., the instructions for the preparation and reception of PSC inspections were outlined to give practical guidelines to the mariners.
Using the data investigated and analyzed as above, final conclusions were made in the following ways - The instructions for the preparation and reception of PSC inspections were made in the format that can be used as practical guide by the onboard crew in Chapter 5 "A study on preparation and reception of PSC inspections and key points to deal with follow-up actions for the PSC interventions".
- Both individual and common reference points were summarized based on the PSC results according to each PSC MOU, USCG, ships in KR registry and Korean flag.
Questionnaires used in this study were analyzed using an electronic program specialized for statistical analysis. The analyzed data were prioritized for degree of importance and necessity of improvement in general and according to the questioned groups, main question items and fleet sizes. In addition, the short and long term measures were separately suggested for the prevention of PSC deficiencies relevant to each question.
As this study was focused on the measures in general aspects, some of the questionnaires used in this study are specific and some of them are comprehensive. Therefore, to practice the suggested measures, further in-depth study is necessary for each measure.
Lastly, it is highly desirable that this study helps increase safety of onboard crews and keep the reputation of Korean fleets.