Many companies around the world are doing business as so-called Multinational Corporation in the globalization era. The importance of international logistics is more and more brought into relief with the fact that producing area, distribution and consuming area are various respectively. With increase in container traffic, there has been constant shortage in supply of containers causing upward tendency at a price of sale and lease. In this point of view, it is safe to say that the importance of demand and supply management for containers is getting clear.
RFID and GPS for tracking of cargoes and trucks are practically applied to full-containers. On the other hand, empty-containers are not so much as full-containers in the systematic management view. As a matter of fact, a trend in demand and supply of empty-containers in every continent has shown more imbalance as time goes by. At the same time, growing dependence on leasing containers has huge effect on increase in cost because of the difficulty in forming forecast model.
Meanwhile, the major industrialized nations have increased security in all logistics matters after September 11 attacks in the U.S. Especially, international society including the U.S. has kept up with latest logistics security standard and introduced unified certification system for logistics security based on international collaboration and solidarity.
Most of large shipping companies internally manage demand and supply of empty-containers. Other minor shipping companies partly operate joint control for it by working alliance each other.
This study designs and embodies exchange-system of empty container as a counter solution for above mentioned problems · Increase in cost of relocation and lease caused by imbalance between demand and supply of empty-containers, The introduction of international logistics security standard · that never mentioned in any other studies. Most of the preceding studies regarding empty-containers give the full treatment with optimized transportation. In particular, even though a variety of studies focus on relocation, it can not help generating an error at all time because of random variables and bookings that should be completed before the shipment. However, these factors can not be considered in optimization process. There is an expectation that using exchange-system of empty-containers brings more effectiveness than short-term lease which causes an error from relocation and fluent. Thus, this study measures the practical possibility of the system case by case through a Scenario Planning.
The principal content for exchange-system of empty container is that users (including shipping company, shipper, container manufacturer, inland-carrier and freight forwarder etc.) input the excess stock information on the system to meet a condition after registering user properties for supply or upload required quantity according to freight terms for demand. This data updated by system transfer to each company’s database respectively through main servers and make it possible to transact for empty containers.
The anticipated effects of realization system are indicated as followings.
First, cost reduction by relocation of empty containers. It will be reduced for procurement expenses by bringing the container from the nearest user’s location. Second, cost reduction for lease as much as sharing information on the system. The lease cost for short-term is much higher than cost for using exchange-system on urgent business. Third, the utilization of space on board can be maximized as much as users request and require. Fourth, the users can save the expenses for purchasing new containers by exchanging containers. Lastly, it is useful to protect from danger factors such as a terror by using RFID system and also easy for acquiring certificated security.