According to Ministry of Public Safety and Security’s statistical data of ship fire, ship fire have occurred more than 74 times every year in recent 5years. At 2015, 115 accidents of fire and explosion have happened. Due to special environment as sea for ships, it is hard to get support from outside. And complex structure with narrow passages makes rescue harder and can cause many life and property loss. Although air supply·exhaust system makes air flow circulation, ships can’t naturally emit smoke because of high air tight structure. However, if this is not controlled properly, smoke can be spreaded very fast all over the ship when fire occurs. Appropriate smoke control is necessary because more than 85% of life losses is caused by suffocation and toxic gas due to smoke diffusion in fire accidents. However there are no research of smoke diffusion control of ship fire. Therefore in this study smoke movement characteristics by air supply·exhaust system is studied first in interior area. Then the fir simulation program Fire Dynamics Simulator(FDS), is used to study the influence of design factor on the performance of smoke ventilation on ship fire.
Main Deck is selected through out Second, Upper and Shelter Deck in Training Ship and simulated by applying the blueprint of where and capacity of air supply·exhaust. The area of fire occurrence is when air supply or exhaust works. Except the area of fire occurrence in Main Deck, scenario is made of 3 cases when air supply·exhaust all works, air supply works or exhaust works.
The result of smoke movement simulation is as followed. When fire occurred while air supply system was working, due to supply of air, irrespective of scenario, smoke have spreaded very fast. And by seeing the reaching time of limit visibility value 5m, it has a little difference between scenario and positions. However it showed that transportation to safe area should be done before 62 seconds. When fire occurred where exhaust system was working, smoke was exhausted but the speed of smoke diffusion was faster than air exhaust speed . So, after 80 seconds of the occurrence of fire, the smoke was full in corridors. And by checking the time of reaching limit visibility value 5m, it is necessary to evacuate the fire occurrence area before 75 seconds. Concluding these results, when ship is on fire, the differences of air supply·exhaust ways also changes the evacuation time by at least 14 seconds. Especially air supply system should be stopped immediately due to fast speed of smoke spreading.