Since ship maneuvering involves variable parameters such as shiphandler's ability, ship's dynamic characteristics, condition of harbor and waterway, and weather and/or sea conditions, it is very difficult to standardize or express the maneuvering process numerically and systematically. Nowadays container ships are rapidly increasing in size but the water facilities of channel depth, width etc. do not follow the ship's size properly and timely. As you know, the navigable waters for both the old and new ports of Busan (also known as "The Hub Port of East Asia") have become narrower due to congestive traffic and reclamation, and also become shallower because they have not been dredged at the right time. Therefore, ship maneuvering in the port of Busan is now more difficult than ever before. It is mainly because of lower under-keel clearance and narrower width of channel. Until now, the practical or actual maneuvering of berthing or unberthing has not been studied. Looking into the New Port of Busan, the port area is restricted because the turning basin and fairway are not separated and new berths are being built.
When many ships are entering or leaving almost at the same time, the accident risk is high because of the interaction between ships and levels of congestion. One example is when an ultra-large container ship is slowing down to approach the berth or turning in front of it to leave. The timely departure from the water area affects the efficiency of port's traffic density and safety.
In view of the above, this paper addresses the standard maneuvering of approaching berths, turning, berthing and unberthing. It also investigates the emergency maneuvering of an engine that has broken down in order to prevent marine accidents. To illustrate the emergency maneuvering procedures, a model container ship of 13,000TEU with a gross tonnage of 140,000 was used. Its draft is more than 15 meters and the under-keel clearance is about 10% of draft. The study used "The Shiphandling Simulator for Pilots" developed by Korea Maritime Pilots' Association. Through data gathered from this simulation, the author provides recommendations for the standard maneuvering of the No.4 berth of Gamman Terminal and No.5 berth of Shinseondae Terminal in the old port of Busan and the maneuvering of NT-08, NT-13 and ST-08 of the New Port of Busan. He also suggests potential methods for the emergency maneuvering when approaching the Oryukdo Breakwater and Todo Island.