- 우리나라 국가해안방제모델 개발 연구
- Alternative Title
- A Study on the Development of National Model of On-Shore Response to Marine Oil Spill Incidents in Korea
- Publication Year
- 한국해양대학교 대학원
- On-shore response to marine oil spill incidents is time-consuming and complex compared with on-water response. On-shore response measures in Korea have been identified to have a lot of fields to be improved through the experience of Hebei Spirit incident in 2007. This study has analyzed the current status of korea's on-shore response structure and capabilities and has suggested national model for on-shore response to marine oil spill incidents with eight modules.
The study is composed with six chapters. In the first chapter, the background and objectives of the study have been defined and the method and scope of it have also been explained.
In the second chapter, overview of Korea's on-shore response has been introduced. The domestic acts and regulations related to on-shore response have been explained and national on-shore response capabilities have also been evaluated. And case studies on catastrophic spill such as the Sea Prince incident in 1995 and the Hebei Spirit incident in 2007 have been made.
In the third chapter, the on-shore spill response systems of advanced countries such as U.S.A.,Japan, U.K. and France have been introduced, also four case studies including the Gulf of Mexico oil spill incident in 2010 have been introduced.
In the forth chapter, the characteristics of our shoreline have been explained on natural and socioeconomic aspects. It has also been identified and evaluated how vulnerable our shoreline is to marine oil spills. In addition, the quantity of oil transported near our shoreline has been analyzed and the statistics of oil spill incidents for the recent five years have also been analyzed.
Assuming 1,000 ㎘ of crude oil has been spilt into our western, southern or eastern sea from a tanker in spring, summer, fall and winter respectively, trajectory of spilled oil has been predicted using KOSPS (Korea Oil Spill Prediction System), which was developed in 2006 through 2008 by Korea Coast Guard (KCG). With the trajectory predictions, the study has identified that our western and southern coastlines are the most vulnerable to oil spills and the spilled oil at sea would reach at the shoreline within at most 24 hours. The response measures have been compared between the Hebei Spirit incident in 2007 and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill incident, and identified gabs between the two countries in on-shore response measures.
In the fifth chapter, as a core of this study, design of national model for shoreline clean-up to marine oil spills is made with 8 modules. The national model is a suggestion of the directions to which our country's on-shore clean-up should follow in the future and its contents are as follows
The first module deals with national response structure and role allocations. In the module, the roles to carry out on-shore response should be divided between local governments and KCG. KCG will take the duties of management of readiness of national response resources, arrangement of education and training of on-shore response personnel of local governments, development of shoreline response support systems, etc, which needed large budget and advanced skills. On the other hand, local governments will take the responsibilities for shoreline assessment, supervision of on-site clean-up activities, designation of endpoints of shoreline treatment for each segment, etc, which are more closely related to the local government's concerns and can carry out without large budget and advanced skills. And in this module, the study also suggests the introduction to the assessment protocol for the response entities such as KCG offices, branches of Korea Marine Environment Management Corporation (KOEM), local governments, etc.
Second module regarding management of national response resources suggests that the oil spill response resources should be managed at national level, and a computer system for this purpose should be developed.
In third module regarding information-sharing, it is suggested that a computer system should be developed and maintained to collect, maintain and share all relevant informations on oil spill responses. As a lot of entities and stakeholders will be engaged in the oil spill response, and many informations will be inevitably generated, distributed, and provided by them, a system to maintain the information efficiently should be developed.
Fourth module regarding on-scene safety management at early stage, suggests early designation of safety officer, establishment of control zone, and implementation of routine air and risk monitoring of the sites. Considering that most of the spilt oil might reach shorelines within 24 hours due to our country's shoreline characteristics, early on-shore response measures become more important. In case that these measures will not be taken sufficiently or timely, local residents' and responders' safety and health problems may be caused.
Fifth module regarding on-shore response decision making, suggests to make Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technology (SCAT) system suited to our environment, and decision making procedures using the results from the SCAT.
In sixth module, as emergency advance payments of shoreline clean-up costs, emergency advance payments procedures and methods are suggested to solve the problem caused by the delay of payments of clean-up costs of local residents and private clean-up companies.
Seventh module deals with the Vessel of Opportunity (VOO) program, the study suggests the introduction to the system to use fishing boats and local residents as temporary oil spill clean-up resources. To improve the efficiency of the program, response equipments which will be installed on the fishing boats in case of oil spill incidents are suggested to be developed by government organizations such as KCG in advance of any oil spills.
Eighth module regarding scientific assistance to the shoreline clean-up, suggests that our country needs to operate a permanent institution such as NOAA in U.S.A., and CEDRE in France. Considering that a lot of shoreline response measures needed scientific assistance for OSC to make decisions and currently operating Response Skill Support Committee is not sufficient to provide those technical advices to the OSC timely, it is suggested that a permanent institution be established in KCG' R&D Center, KOEM, or Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI).
Finally, in the sixth chapter, the study concluded with summary of all the previous chapters and several suggestions.
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