지구온난화 등의 기상이후 현상으로 인하여 극지해역의 해빙면적이 감소되었고, 항로단축과 자원개발 그리고 신사업 등의 경제적 이점으로 인하여 극지해역으로의 선박 유입량이 증가하고 있다. 하지만 극지해역을 운항하는 선박의 안전과 해양환경보호를 위한 국제규범은 상세하지 못하였으며 법적 강제력을 갖지 못한다는 한계를 지녔으므로 이를 해결한 국제규범이 필요하다는 국제사회의 합의가 도출되었다. 이에 따라 국제해사기구(IMO)의 MSC와 MEPC를 중심으로 ‘극지해역 운항선박기준(POLAR CODE)‘이 제정되었고, 2017년 1월부로 발효되었다. 이는 극지해역의 특수성을 반영한 최초의 상세규범이자 법적강제력을 지닌 강행규범으로서의 가치를 지닌다. 극지해역 운항선박기준(POLAR CODE)은 안전조치를 위한 PART I과 오염방지조치를 위한 PART II로 이루어져있으며, 각 PART는 강행규범인 A편과 권고규범인 B편의 구성을 띠고 있다. 극지해역 운항선박기준(POLAR CODE)이 지니는 중요성을 인식한 채 안전부문, 보안부문, 해양환경보호부문에 대한 기준의 내용을 분석하도록 한다. 따라서 극지해역의 특수성을 잘 반영하였는지 극지해역의 안전과 환경보호라는 목표의 실효성이 있는지를 중점으로 살펴보고, 이를 통하여 극지해역 운항선박기준(POLAR CODE)의 한계점을 살펴보도록 한다. 극지해역으로의 선박유입량이 점차 증가할 것임을 고려할 때, 극지해역의 선박안전과 환경보호에 대한 국제규범의 중요성 또한 높아 질것으로 보인다. 그러므로 앞에서 살펴본 한계점에 대한 분야별 개선방안을 알아보고, 극지해역 운항선박기준(POLAR CODE)에 대한 우리나라의 대응방안을 알아보도록 한다.
|Global warming is bringing rapid change to the Arctic. The melting of sea ice and glaciers is increasing faster than scientist predicted. Consequently, the number of ships operating in the Arctic Ocean has increased because of the accessibility to to Arctic and the efficiency from shortening of the sea route. As a result, the interest of the international community in the safety of marine vessels operating in polar waters and the protection of the polar marine environment has begun to be shared.
Although guidelines for vessels operating in Arctic Ocean were enacted in 2002, it has limitations as recommendation. In the meantime, The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters(POLAR CODE) has been developed io supplement existing IMO(International Maritime Organization) instruments in order to increase the safety of ships operation and mitigate the impact on the people and environment in the remote, vulnerable and potentially harsh polar waters. Finally, Polar Code which is detailed regulations with legal force emerged in the world. Polar Code is intended to regulate the nature of commercial shipping in the Arctic and Antarctic by setting minimum standards for ships transport through Polar Waters. This region of the world is unique, and has certain characteristics that make it both attractive and dangerous.
The purpose of this Polar Code is to ensure the safety of ship operation and the protection of the polar environment by addressing risks present in polar waters and protect the polar environment. The Polar Code entered into force 1 January 2017 upon entry into force the associated amendments to MARPOL(International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships) and SOLAS(International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea).
Maritime Safety Committee at its ninety fourth session on 21 November 2014 adopted the safety-related provisions of the introduction and the whole of parts Ⅰ-A and Ⅰ-B of the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters(Polar Code), by which it adopted, the new chapter XIV(Safety Measures for Ships Operating in Polar Waters) of International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea(SOLAS) to make use the provisions of the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters mandatory. Also, Marine Environment Protection Committee at its sixty eighth session on 15 May 2015 adopted the environment related provisions of the introduction, the parts Ⅱ-A and Ⅱ-B of the Code and the associated amendments to International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships(MARPOL) Annexes Ⅰ(Prevention of Pollution by Oil), Ⅱ(Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk), Ⅳ(Prevention of Pollution by Sewage) and Ⅴ(Prevention of Pollution by Garbage).
Polar Code consists of Introduction, Parts I and II. The introduction contains mandatory provisions applicable to both Parts I and II. Part I is subdivided into Part I-A, which contains mandatory provisions on safety measures, and Part I-B containing recommendations on safety. Part II is subdivided into Part II-A, which contains mandatory provisions on pollution prevention, and Part II-B containing recommendations on pollution prevention.
Therefore, this paper will review the background of enactment, main contents, legal status and development trends of Polar Code. In addition, the goal of this paper is to identify and analyze the core of standards related to Marine Safety, Marine Security and the Protection of marine environment of Polar Code. Moreover, this paper will draw the limitations of Polar Code, and suggest desirable improvement measures for those limitations related Marine Safety, Marine Security and Marine environment. In addition, at the same time, it aims to suggest counterplans for the policy, industry and research fields in Korea.