A Study on Enhancement Method of Competitiveness for Shipping Liners through Global Alliance Strategy
Department of Port Logistics,
Graduate School, Maritime Industrial Studies,
Korea Maritime University
(Directed by Professor Chang, Myung-Hee)
Recently, we are facing kinds of paradigm shifts going on in the global liner shipping markets such as Global Alliance in lieu of Shipping Conference in strategic coalition system, slow steaming instead of full steaming in vessel operation for bunker-cost savings and Ultra Large Container Ships (ULCS) drastically substituting Panamax & Post Panamax-class container ships in shipping liners for achieving economy of scale and etc.,
Among these paradigm shifts, especially, three Global Alliances of P3, G6 and CKYHE have been announced to be launched during 2014 in order to strategically cope with continued recessions in liner shipping markets started from 2008 due to economic crisis triggered by Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.'s moratorium in USA, which has been swiftly spreaded and influenced global slumps including Europe, China, Japan, Korea and other global countries.
In these circumstances, to study on three Global Alliances would be much important and essential for enhancement of competitiveness for shipping liners. The three Global Alliances named P3, G6 and CKYHE are all setting goals for efficiently getting over the long-lasting slumps and recessions in the shipping industries. To effectively overcome the huge losses which shipping liners undergo for several years, they are now strategically getting together for exchange of vessel spaces, common use of calling terminals and even exchange of containers, equipments and appliances in every shipping route and area. Furthermore, P3 has already ordered and deployed Ultra Large Container Ships such as 18,000TEU-class called triple-E in shipping market and G6 Alliance is now planning to order over 20,000TEU-class ULCS in the near future to strategically and efficiently compete with P3. And CKYHE Alliance is also known to be under negotiation with shipbuilding companies for ordering ULCS-class Eco-ships mainly oriented by Evergreen.
These shifts in shipping industries could be an opportunity for some leading shipping liners, but could be a threat for other small shipping ones. Therefore, this study especially focuses on the domestic shipping liners of Hyundai Merchant Marine and Hanjin Shipping for their improvement of competitiveness through these Global Alliance strategies. And mainly by adopting SWOT analysis method, this paper describes four factors of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat for respective three Global Alliances by using all related time-series data (tables and drawings) obtained from various reference books, papers and news material.
This study herewith provides seven enhancement methods for competitiveness through the Global Alliance strategies for two outstanding national shipping liners of Hyundai Merchant Marine and Hanjin Shipping in Korea as follows First, to reduce operation costs per TEU by obtaining ULCS- class Eco-ships at their earliest.
Second, to reduce bunker costs through collective purchase together with respective member liners in all possible routes.
Third, to make agreements of mutual use for all the available vessel space, equipment, terminal and appliance solely tied-up between Hyundai Merchant Marine and Hanjin.Shipping.
Forth, to introduce and manage an integrated and combined terminal system similar to PSA (Port of Singapore Authority) in new-port of Busan. Also secure and establish logistics facilities which fully accommodating ship-bunkering and oil storage & transaction station in the same terminal.
Fifth, to get support of shipping financing and establishment of shipping guaranty fund from relevant Government authorities.
Sixth, to secure government subsidy on scrapping for the ships under/including Panamax-class.
Finally, to share invested costs for ULCS-class Eco-ships between G6 and CKYHE Alliance for mutual enhancement of competitiveness against P3 Alliance.
With the seven methods above mentioned, hope this study could be helpful for those who are facing with these paradigm shifts in global shipping area.